Essay on Population Explosion / Population Growth for students (800 words) -

population explosion in india essay


The term Population Explosion means, a sudden, vast increment in the size of population. In today’s age, the population growth is one of the major problems of the world. Population of the world is increasing day by day, which is affecting the situation of the world in many ways. The increment in population affects world’s environment, society and economy. Referring to 2011 census, the top ten most populated countries in the world are China, India, United States, Indonesia, Brazil, Pakistan, Nigeria, Bangladesh, Russia and Mexico. Out of these, China and India are the top most densely populated countries.

Population of  India:

Next to the People’s Republic of China, India is the most heavily inhabited country within the globe. India is faced with the problem with the matter of rising population. In keeping with the 2011 survey, India with 1.21 billion population, is very near to the 1.35 billion residents of China. It has been calculated that, India occupies 2.4% of the world’s area and supports over 17.5% of the world’s population that describes that, one out of six people of this world is an Indian. It is calculable that, India is all set to go away China behind in terms of population. But, it's interesting to notice that, India isn't ignorant towards the matter of population explosion because the latest census explains that 2001-2011 is that the 1st decade that has really added lesser population as compared to the previous decades.  

Reasons of Population Explosion in India:    

It is known to everyone that, the main reason for the growth of population in India is illiteracy. People from the uneducated and poor categories are noticed bearing greater number of children as they think that, the more children one has, the more people will be able to earn money and take care of their family. This concept has actually arisen due to illiteracy.  Most of the uneducated people are also unknown about the birth control methods and the rules and regulations of Government. Low literacy rate leads to traditional superstitions and ignorant population. This is clear from the fact that, Kerala which has the highest literacy rate in India forms only 2.7% of the population of India as compared to Uttar Pradesh having maximum number of illiterate population constituting 16.5 % of India’s population.

Another cause of population explosion is the widening gap between the birth rate and death rate. In the past, there was a balance between the birth rate and death rate due to limited medical facilities. Child marriage also results in greater number of kids. Although, the child marriage system has been cut out successfully from India, but now also it is seen in some under developed areas. So, the Govt. should keep sharp eye on it and take steps against this. Migration is also one of the major causes of increment of population in India. People from some foreign countries are seen migrating to India. The Rohingya Muslims from Myanmar are entering to India in large scale which is also a problem of unemployment in India.

Problems due to Population Explosion:

The adverse effects of population growth are: Increasing population has led to declining man: land ratio. There is also food scarcity problem as it is very hard to keep pace with the demands of the fast growing population. Common properties such as forest and are over-exploited. This results in deforestation and permanent damage to the renewable resources. Along with the population explosion, the total numbers of illiterate people are also increasing every year which is an indication of the wastage of human resource. Facilities such as housing, transportation, health care and education become inadequate giving rise to problems like unsanitised localities, traffic congestion, crowded hospitals etc.

Solutions for population control in India:

(i) Minimum marriageable age- which is 21 years for men and 18 years for women.

(ii) Promoting adoption- which is a good way to control population.

(ii) Free education- which has been taken to avoid illiteracy and increase literacy rate.

(iv) Women empowerment- Empowering woman with a say in matters concerning the
like child birth and educating them to fight against discrimination will ensure a health
and aware society.

(v) Gender discrimination system has also been closed everywhere.


Population explosion is a serious problem in India and there are not so easy solutions for it. Action plans and strategies should be developed to increase public understanding of how rapid population growth limits the changes of meeting basic needs. Effective provisions in taxation should be made that favour families with limited number of children. The spirit of open communication and empowerment of women will be the key to a successful solution to many problems. Sex-education needs to be made a mandatory subject in schools, so that students at the early age of their youth know the advantages of contraceptives and understand the importance of family planning. The road may seem long for India, but it is not an impossible destination to arrive at.     

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